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In this paper, you are required to present a report on Individual Investor Perception toward of Kuwait Stock Exchange. You will have to improve on the abstract and ensure that the pages are numbered. You need to improve on Research Gap and significance of your study.
Topic: Individual Investor Perception toward of Kuwait Stock Exchange
The title must reflect the content of you proposal. You proposed to study on the “intention” or “decision” to invest in KSE. The word “perception” has different meaning. You will have to improve on the abstract and ensure that the pages are numbered.
1. Differentiate between overview and introduction 2. Background … should be Background of KSE. What background are you providing … “market efficiency” 3. Motivation … not clear 4. Problem statement … not clear 5. Research question comes first … (intention/decision); why direct relationship? 6. Research gaps???? Not so clear 7. Significance/contribution … micro vs macro variables; on supply of money, growth … how to measure? 8. Why behavioural Finance here? 9. Definition of terms … should be included 1. Supervisor comments:
A chapter starts with an introduction. It introduces the main topics that will be discussed in the chapter. From what I read, the sections on Overview, Introduction and Background are related to KSE. You will need to reorganise these sections. The information previous studies on investment decisions should be moved to Literature Review. Motivation – should focus on the reasons you wish to undertake this study. Problem statements – should should focus you dependent variable. Research questions – should be consistent with your proposed research framework. You need to improve on Research Gap and significance of your study. Chapter 2
1. Behavioral Finance … from psychological perspective … how to link to 4 IVs? (not clear); suggestion : X explain the 4 IVs here 2. Behavioral change theories … the trans-theoretical theory; tpa; social cognitive theory … how are they related to FW; Why TPB? Not others (no strong support) 3. Table/Summary of past studies, years?; what psych factors? How about any other factors (risk) 4. LR (literature review) on each IV 5. How political stability, culture, monopoly power and trust -à psychological constructs?
The theories you cited and try to explain in this chapter do not provide support to your research framework.
The summary of literature review that you did in the Table do not capture all the variables. You need to read the articles and add new articles that are relevant to your study. This is important so that you can have a comprehensive literature review. You are also to take note of the definition of the terms and variables used by previous researchers. (See comments on Chapter 3) The examiner is suggesting that you have to incorporate other variables which may be important based on previous studies.
1.Lack of literature support 2.Trust (operationalisation of trust) … trust on info, trust can earn more money, trust on fairness 3. Monopoly vs monopolistic? 4. Politic? Dimensions … stability/event/environment/connection (How to link to psychology?) 5. Culture? Different culture/nation … relationship to attitude? 6. DV … intention to invest? Decision to invest? … why no antecedents for PBC? (Direct relationship à RCE?) 7. Moderating factors? Age, gender, marital status … 8. Hypothesis -> moderator? 9. Population … people in Kuwait? Foreign investor? 10. Why/how permission from KSE? to get list of investors? (refer p. 63. 11. Why mention qualitative research (p. 65/66) ; typical sampling? What specific characteristics of your sample?
Supervisor comments :
The examiner is highlighting that there are many ways of operationalising a variable in research. The writing on the population and sampling needs to be improved. Important Notes:
1- Frame work must be improved demographic factor must take a place in the framework 2- Use the same reference that been used & if your using new references then it must be reachable and put the link in the references page. 3- The questionnaire must be improved with a list of table the adopted items. 4- Measurement of variables IN CHAPTER 3: adding a table showing the measurement tools that will be used to measure the variables as the following: • Variable • No of items been will be used • Items constructed or modified or items adopted • Field • Sources ( link & research been used )
5- All chapters need to be updated to following the new correction. VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: Bellow you will find the new framework, research questions, research objectives, hypothesis, and table that was made by me when I collected the measures, that was updated by my supervisor Based on those changes and their comment please do the needful to edit the whole thee chapters and get ready to finish the remaining 2 chapters, for now I am collecting data. Please do write about any new factor mentioned in the framework and nor mentioned in the chapters with adding a good solid paragraph with references. Factors Influencing decisions to invest In Kuwait Stock Exchange Research Objectives The main objective of the study is to investigate the factors that influence the individual attitudes that investors have towards the Kuwait stock exchange market. The specific objectives of the study include; 1. To investigate the impact of trust, monopoly power and politics towards attitude of individual investors. 2. To determine the influence of Attitude on decision to invest in Kuwait Stock Exchange. 3. To evaluate the impact of culture on Subjective Norms of the individual investors 4. To determine the influence of subjective norms on investors’ decision to invest in Kuwait Stock Exchange. 5. To determine the influence of Perceived Behavioral Control of the individual investors behavior decision to invest in Kuwait Stock Exchange. Research Questions In achieving the above research objectives, the study will seek answers to the following research questions: 1. To what extent trust, and politics influence attitude of individual investors in Kuwait? 2. To what extent attitude influence the decision to invest in Kuwait Stock Exchange. 3. To what extent culture influence Subjective Norms of the individual investors 4. To what extent subjective norms influence investors’ decision to invest in Kuwait Stock Exchange. 5. To what extent Perceived Behavioral Control of the individual investors influences decision to invest in Kuwait Stock Exchange.
ypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1: Differences of demographic factors affect the investing decision. 2. Hypothesis 2: Attitude toward investment of the individual investor is positively correlated with investing intention. 3. Hypothesis 3: Herd is positively correlated with investing intention. 4. Hypothesis 4: Perception of risk is negatively correlated with investing intention. a) Hypothesis 5: Economic is negatively correlated with investing intention. b) Hypothesis 6: Politics positively correlated with investing attitude of individual investors. c) Hypothesis 7: Trust is positively related with investing attitude among individual investors. 5. Hypothesis 8: The subjective norm that favors investment is positively correlated with investing intention. a) Hypothesis 9: The advocate recommendation is positively correlated with investing intention. b) Hypothesis 10: Culture “Diwaniyyah” is positively correlated with subjective norm due to of individual investor intention. 6. Hypothesis 11: Perceived behavioral control of individual investors is positively correlated with investing behavioral. 7. Hypothesis 12: Organization health positively correlated with individual investor intention. a) Hypothesis 13: Accounting information is positively correlated due to of individual investor intention. b) Hypothesis 14: Firm Image is positively correlated due to of individual investor intention. a) Behavioral factors extracted from academic and experimental sources Sr.NO Behavior Factors Sources Items 1. Overconfidence Behavior Impact of Investors’ Behavioral Biases on the Indian Equity Market and Implications on Stock Selection Decisions: An Empirical Analysis Synopsis
The 5 points in the scale are respectively from 1 to 5: Strongly Agree, Agree, Neither Agree nor Dis Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree.
1. I have complete knowledge of KSE Exchange. 2. I am sure I can make correct investment decisions 3. My past profitable investments were mainly due to my specific investment skills 4. My investments can mostly earn higher than average return in the market. 5. Relative to others, my ability to predict future prices is better. 6. I have sufficient knowledge of Kuwait stock market. 7. I am confident of my ability to pick better stocks than others. 8. I take full control and responsibility of my portfolio performance. 9. My past investment successes are attributed to my own skills and understanding.
1. Based on your own skills, you feel confident to evaluate securities prices in your investment portfolio by yourself. 2. On the stock market, you are confident to select securities better than other investors. 3. You can totally control your investment on the stock market. 4. You feel confident in the understanding of the stock market.
2. Advocate recommendation An Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Indian Individual Equity Investors’ Decision Making and Behavior Factors influencing Individual Investor Decision Making: The case of Pakistan Equity Investors Survey
1. Brokers recommendation 2. Family member’s opinion. 3. Friends and coworker recommendation. 4. Opinion of the majority stockholder.
1. Family member’s opinion. 2. Friends & coworkers opinion. 3. Majority of stockholder opinion. 4. Brokers recommendation for a stock.
3. Firm Image Behavioral Aspects of Individual Investors for Investment in Bangladesh Stock Market, Rahnuma Akhter, Sultan Ahmed (2013) Factors influencing Individual Investor Decision Making: The case of Pakistan Equity Investors Survey 1. Reputation of the firm in terms of business performance 2. Reputation of the firm in terms of performance in stock market 3. Firm’s status in the industry 4. Feelings for firm’s products and services 5. Firm’s involvement in solving community problems 6. Perceived ethical practice of firm 1. Religious reasons. 2. Firm’s reputation in the industry. 3. Preference for firm’s product and services. 4. Firm’s governing body ” Board of directors & CEO’s “. 5. The position of the firm’s in the industry. 6. Firm’s contribution toward social causes. 7. Firms ethics. 4. Herd Behavior
The Effects of Psychology on Individual Investors’ Behaviors: Evidence from the Vietnam Stock Exchange
1. Other investors’ decisions of the stock volume have impact on your investment decisions. 2. Other investors’ decisions of buying and selling stocks have impact on your investment decisions. 3. You usually react quickly to the changes of other investors’ decisions and follow their reactions to the stock market. 4. My investment decisions are influenced by other investors’ decisions of trading volume. 5. My investment decisions are influenced by other investors’ decisions of trading volume. 6. Discussing my investment decisions with colleagues reduces my pressure of being successful. 7. I feel extremely disappointed if I take a contrarian position (opposite to the general trend) and lose while my friends make profits by following the crowd. 1- When you need to make decision to buy/sell stocks in a short time, following most investors’ behaviors is fast and certain method. 2- Information from relatives, friends and colleagues has high reliability. 3- Information about transactions of foreign investors 4- Recommendations of analysts, market researchers, stock brokers. Accounting Information An Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Indian Individual Equity Investors’ Decision Making and Behavior Dr. Syed Tabassum Sultana1* Dr S Pardhasaradhi (2012) Factors influencing Individual Investor Decision Making: The case of Pakistan Equity Investors Survey
1. Stock Marketability 2. Expected corporate earnings 3. Condition of financial statements 4. Dividends paid 5. Affordable share price 6. Expected Dividends 7. Past performance of the firm’s Stk
1. Expected corporate earnings. 2. Dividend paid. 3. Financial statements condition. 4. Stock marketability “easily sold”
6. Culture Diwaniyyah Information Role of Kuwaiti Diwaniyyah as a Model of Unofficial Information Sources Yagoub Y. AL-Kandari( 2002 ) 1. How many times you go attend Diwaniyyahs during the week. 2. What is the number of Diwaniyyahs frequently you visit. 3. What is the average hours you spend in the Diwaniyyh. 4. What is the main purpose of your visit to Diwaniyyah, sort by importance ( entertainment – friends – speaks about cultural, literary, scientific matters ) Other things ( specify please……..) 5. I think that the forum of Diwaniyyah bring interest back to its visitors. 6. I cannot skip going to Diwaniyyah , it have become necessity. 7. In Diwaniyyah sometime rises issues cannot be exposed in the media. 8. Some received news in Diwaniyyah cannot be heard elsewhere. 9. Most of the news I hear in the Diwaniyyah is correct. 10. Diwaniyyah helps me to verify information received from somewhere else. 11. What are the main information that are traded in the Diwaniyyah” Socio-economic-political-religious-educational-medical – others ….” ( priority arrange)