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[Solved] What is a philosophy of agriculture?

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[Solved] What is a philosophy of agriculture?

Philosophy of Agriculture

INSTRUCTIONS:

What is a philosophy of agriculture? Identify and explain some of the important differences between an industrial philosophy of agriculture and an agrarian philosophy of agriculture. Which of these is best able to address the environmental and ethical challenges that our conventional agricultural system poses? Please use the 2 references I attached, please make sure to CITE your work, PLEASE follow instructions that I will attach. Also, including the 2 references I attached, Please also use this reference: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/science-sushi/2011/07/18/mythbusting-101-organic-farming-conventional-agriculture/ So in total 3 references. PLEASE HAVE A CLEAR AND PRECISE THESIS

 

Organic agriculture and the global food supply

Catherine Badgley1, Jeremy Moghtader2,3, Eileen Quintero2, Emily Zakem4, M. Jahi Chappell5, Katia Aviles-Vazquez2, Andrea Samulon2 and Ivette Perfecto2*

1Museum of Palaeontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

2School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.

3Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

4School of Art and Design, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

5Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Abstract

The principal objections to the proposition that organic agriculture can contribute significantly to the global food supply are low yields and insufficient quantities of organically acceptable fertilizers. We evaluated the universality of both claims. For the first claim, we compared yields of organic versus conventional or low-intensive food production for a global dataset of 293 examples and estimated the average yield ratio (organic: non-organic) of different food categories for the developed and the developing world. For most food categories, the average yield ratio was slightly1.0 for studies in the developing world. With the average yield ratios, we modeled the global food supply that could be grown organically on the current agricultural land base. Model estimates indicate that organic methods could produce enough food on a global per capita basis to sustain the current human population, and potentially an even larger population, without increasing the agricultural land base. We also evaluated the amount of nitrogen potentially available from fixation by leguminous cover crops used as fertilizer. Data from temperate and tropical agroecosystems suggest that leguminous cover crops could fix enough nitrogen to replace the amount of synthetic fertilizer currently in use. These results indicate that organic agriculture has the potential to contribute quite substantially to the global food supply, while reducing the detrimental environmental impacts of conventional agriculture. Evaluation and review of this paper have raised important issues about crop rotations under organic versus conventional agriculture and the reliability of grey-literature sources. An ongoing dialogue on these subjects can be found in the Forum editorial of this issue.

CONTENT:
Philosophy of AgricultureName:Institution:Date:Thesis StatementThe global population is rapidly rising. The increase comes with a resultant rise in the demand for food. It therefore, requires that different approaches be undertaken to address the consumption demands of the ever-growing population in an ethical and environmentally friendly manner. Studies in agriculture and agricultural practices have led to the development of a school of agricultural studies known as agricultural philosophy with two schools of thoughts. This paper provides a brief definition of the agricultural philosophy and studies the industrial and agrarian approaches to agriculture. The paper, further, looks into the difference between the two schools of thought in agriculture and analyzes the best approach that addresses the agricultural concerns.A Philosophy of AgricultureA philosophy of agriculture is a tentative discipline that critiques the philosophical frameworks used as the basis for decision making in agriculture. It is also referred to as agricultural philosophy whose views are not only used in decision making in agriculture, but also in decisions regarding land use. It involves research in agriculture as a concept of human civilization and as a means of sustaining population increase CITATION Nat101 l 1033 (National Research Council, 2010).Differences between an industrial and an agrarian philosophy of agricultureThe differences between the industrial and agrarian philosophies of agriculture can be derived from their definition. The industrial philosophy of agriculture postulates that agriculture is a sector of an industrialized country where products are produced at the cheapest cost possible using methods that provide sufficient food and fiber for the entire society CITATION Nat101 l 1033 (National Research Council, 2010).Here, the trend is towards few commercial farms but that are larger in size for commercial purposes. It is proposed as a means of acquiring economies of scale of large-scale production and lowering production costs for food, fiber and energy. The proponents of this approach see the need to use such approaches in other countries to guarantee global food sufficiency and security CITATION Nat101 l 1033 (National Research Council, 2010). The view is that landscapes are commodities land can produce; therefore, the emphasis is on increasing the yield per acre and or pounds of meat per animal. There are concerns regarding labor fairness, communities` vitality, animal welfare, and the negative environmental impacts. However, the argument is that these concerns can be dealt without overhauling the agricultural industry`s structure CITATION Nat101 l 1033 (National Research Council, 2010).The agrarian philosophy also known as alternative or multifunctional agriculture, on the other hand, perceives agriculture as having a vital social function beyond food, fiber and biofuel production. Social functions here are provision of positive ecological serv...

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