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Every year projects are developed to attain certain height and goal. But according to various reports and analysis, 70% projects fails because of inappropriate planning, scheduling, scope and poor implementation. This section provides detailed information regarding the project that failed miserably. 
HealthSmart- a project Failure
HealthSmart, an e-health record system is a project initiated by Victorian Government with a purpose of managing patient’s health records. It was deemed to be an ambitious and resourceful project aimed at modernizing state’s health IT framework. The main objective was to combine patient’s health information for financial management, management of patient and resources through the establishment of Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. (Crozier and Crozier, 2016)
The system was purchased from USA which was then modified according to the local requirements. This integration of modifications into the original functionality of base system had resulted in greater cost. Unfortunately, in the end, it leads to huge cost overruns. The original budget of HealthSmart was expected to be $323 million. But in the succeeding years, more than half percentage of money was being spent and only 25% project was completed. This further considerably increased the due dates and the project did not reached the target it was set to achieve. Audits revealed that the project was lacked behind in proper planning and management. Critics argued that proper planning and satisfactory analysis was required to make strategic decisions. It was considered to be a situation where project actually failed.

Reasons for HealthSmart Failure

Although the project was initialized with a view to make use of Health Record System that manages patient’s record effectively, it was a huge failure for Victorian Government. There are several reasons involved that tend to be the cause of its failure but two of the major reasons are:
1. Inadequate Governance implementation decisions- There were lack of proper planning strategies that could mark the success of HealthSmart. Inadequate governing body and insight into the visibility of project lead to the termination of system. Moreover, the decision to modify the original software led to increase in budget for an organization.

2. Constant increase in budget- The cost of developing a project increased rapidly. The project ceased to complete within a given amount of time and budget. Hence, it was decided to abort the project as the amount for developing it raised considerably.

SOLUTION 2-The Waterfall Model

PART A- Waterfall Model and its Phases
Waterfall model is a type of sequential model where each phase is covered in steps one after the other. Each phase is divided with certain series of tasks and defined with intended objective. It is one of the earlier models of SDLC. In this model, one could only proceeds to next level once he/she done with previous level. Here, output of one level act as an input in succeeding level. Due to this each level is analysed in detail depth.
Following are the phases of waterfall model are illustrated below:
- Requirement Analysis: This phase is responsible for defining the main objective of the project proposed and aims at acquiring requisites. After acquiring requirements feasibility analysis is performed in order to understand the requirements. As a deliverable RUD (Requirements Understanding Document) is created at the end of this phase.
- Design Phase: A system’s design is prepared on the basis of collected requirements. This level of waterfall model also focuses on capturing hardware and software requirements. As an output design document is created which is of following two types such as high level and low level design.
- Implementation: This level involves coding and actual scripting of programs on the basis of design. Codes that are written are than merged together and underwent through unit testing. As an output test cases and their results are received.
- Testing: On the basis of test cases each unit is combined together and is tested in order to ensure results as foreseen. This is a phase that ensures functional and non-functional requirements are working as stated. This creates defects and update reports as output.
- Deployment: The main objective of this level is to deploy the software by ensuring environment is ready to adopt the changes. After installation sanity analysis is executed in order avert system’s breakdown. This phase helps in introducing with user manuals.
- Maintenance: This level ensures the impeccable running of installed software. The system is scanned for modifications and need of new features is fixed if need any. As an output list of new features are added.
Various level of waterfall model is illustrated by the following diagram:

Part B- Advantages of Waterfall model

Various advantages of Waterfall model are explained below:
- Fewer Complexes: One could smoothly understand the flow of process. Hence, project following waterfall model as its development process model make easy to understand the whole process in detail. This in complex nature of model helps in managing the project easily.
- Documentation: This model involves wide range of document defining. At the end of each phase documents are created which acts as an aid in succeeding level of waterfall model. User manuals, test cases, updated matrices are some of the documents illustrations.
- Rigid Model: Waterfall model considers to be rigid model as one before moving to the next face fixed the requirement of current phase. Due to this one could have better view of requirements and clear milestones. This helps in managing small project with much ease.
Developing a static E- Commerce website is seems to be a convenient example of waterfall model. As they have rigid requirements and they are predefined. Even their outcomes are known beforehand. So, changes in their requirements are not changing moderately. Since, no interaction is involved in the system exchange of information becomes nil. Even the need of feedback is not felt. The scope in such websites is predetermined and seeing the simplicity and smoothly running of the project, waterfall model considered being best possible SDLC model.
There are many other examples where waterfall model is highly effective include:
- Building up of automobiles: Requirements are pre-decided before constructing motor bikes and cars. After completing one level of constructing another level is preceded.

Part C- Pitfalls of Waterfall Model

Looking upon the favourable benefits of waterfall model there are certain pitfalls that come across are enlisted below:
- No Feedback: One could not go to preceding level ones the requirement are fixed. Going back and revision is not applicable in waterfall model. Hence, when testing phase is arrived it’s become difficult to make modifications at the previous stage.
- High Risk: Developing project using this model involves high amount of risk as results are not certain in this case. It is not a good example for the complex projects that are object oriented. High risks are encountered in case of projects where requirements are highly moderate to change.
- No working product: Product is seen nowhere until or unless all the levels are covered. It is considered to be lengthy and time consuming process. Hence, this methodology of project development seems to be fatal for ongoing large projects. 
Generally, three factors are considered in the development of software that is cost, time management and requirements. Waterfall proves to be inefficient where cost and time affixed but requirements can change at any point of time. Waterfall becomes ineffectual where customers don’t have clear vision and scope of project. Feedback is major source of concern in large ongoing project which is a drawback of waterfall model as ones the requirements are fixed one could not go back and review it. Discovering the risks and if found fixing them becomes impossible. Only assumptions are made no progress of development is seen until we reach to last level of waterfall model.

PART D- Efficient Use of Waterfall Model
Modifications that are needed to be made in order to incorporate the benefits of waterfall model the suggestive model would be Iterative Waterfall Model. As mentioned in the context the modifications in requirements can only be achieved through this proposed model as this will help in making changes that are not encountered in first iteration can be corrected in following iterations. This is how Iterative Model proves to be an improvement on traditional Waterfall Model. One could easily access to feedback which supposed to be huge source of concern.

Solution 3 Agile Methods

PART A- Advantages of Incremental Delivery

Increment delivery is considered to be a key element in software project. It enables the developers to deliver small fragments of a system first which help them to start getting benefits during earlier stages.
Several advantages of incremental delivery are explained below:
- Risk Identification and Management- As the system is developed into fragments and stages, it provides greater visibility into numerous critical issues and risks associated while developing a system. Hence, threats can be managed during the early stages of development lifecycle before final system is developed and delivered to customer.
- Flexible- Incremental delivery is considered to be more flexible as compared to other development models. It provides an additional feature of incorporating the change in requirements by the end user. This is because building of software into smaller fragments enables developer to fuse those changes easily.
- Speedy Return on Investment- A fully functional release of software module to the customer helps in achieving faster ROI. The requirements which are implemented in the middle of development procedure are considered to be more valuable as compared to those identified initially. Hence absolute Return on Investment (ROI) will be greater.
- More emphasis on building quality product- Incremental methodology focus more on building a right product with greater quality concerns. It is less matter of concern that which procedure was being followed to develop it. Hence, it provides a product with higher quality to end user which makes it more reliable.

PART B- Test-First Development and its Advantages to programmers

Test-first development is considered to be the most efficient testing approach as compared to other traditional testing techniques. In test-first procedure, small fragments of code are developed and automated testing is performed. It helps in defining the system behaviour in better way. It helps programmers to develop better understanding of requirements in the ways given below:
- Error Detection- It helps programmers to detect bugs and errors during the early stage of development. This enables them to take any further measures to wipe them out. It will lower down the time and cost required to repair those bugs.

- Better Designs- Testing a code module helps programmers to define what the code is meant for. It further presents high cohesion among modules. Unit testing of code helps it to bind with other tests easily. It further depicts loose coupling to other code modules. Hence, greater cohesion and loose coupling helps in providing a good software design.

- Concrete Progress- It provides visibility into the regular development progress. Programmers don’t have to wait for longer period of time to make all the modules working. Progress can be measured without a functional working system.

PART C- Reasons why productivity of programmers rise when working as a pair

Pair programming is a methodology which comprises of two programmers sharing and working on a single workstation. One programmer is engaged in handling the programming tasks (known as driver), other focus on managing the overall development process (known as navigator). Pair programming approach helps in achieving greater productivity rate in following ways:
- Combines skills and techniques- Pair programming develops communication and combines skills of programmers as they might belong to different functional departments. This in turn will help them to design and achieve a better quality product.
- Easy detection of bugs- Bugs in software development can easily be identified as there is two pair of eyes concentrating on a single task rather than one. Therefore chances of errors are minimal.
- Constant motivation and confidence boost up- Working together as pair boost up confidence in their solutions. Moreover, the burden of responsibility is divided among them. They enjoy more performing together and it help to attain better knowledge from each other.

Solution 4

PART B- Network Diagram


The above drawn figure illustrates a netting diagram abiding initial node and the complete process is broken down into multiple tasks. Start node and all the tasks are depicted by virtue of rectangle. The start node divides the task into T1, T2, and T3. After successful completion of task T1, T4 task is initialized because T4 rely on T1 so without getting output from T1 T4 cannot be started and after completing T1 and T4 task T8 is achieved. Similarly T5 and T6 initialize after achievement of tasks T1. Tasks T7 and T10 are dependent on T1, T2 and T3 correspondingly so cannot be commenced prior to the completion of previous tasks. T9 is executed after successful completion of T4, T5 and T7. Finally after acknowledged fulfilment of all the tasks the flow finishes delineating ending of all tasks and process is finally terminated. All the activities from initial point to end point are referred to as Zero Length Pseudo Activities.


The Gantt chart is used to outline and delineate task allocation process and time consumed by each task. The first task in this chart is Task 1 which takes approximately 1 week in its completion. Similarly time taken by Task 2 and Task 3 is about 3 and 5 weeks correspondingly. Task T4 is commenced after successful attainment of earlier tasks and takes about 3 weeks to end. Task 5 and Task 6 both consume 2 weeks each for their culmination. After their completion, Task 7 starts and takes almost 3 weeks to finish after which Task 8 initializes and then proceeds till 4 weeks which marks the beginning of Task 9 holding about 3 weeks for its conclusion. At last Task 10 begins is journey and finishes in around 2 weeks.


Figure 3: Staff Allocation Chart

The chart depicted above is referred to as Staff Allocation Chart and is used to illustrate the eventual allocation of tasks. Here in this chart, the allotment of tasks between three developers named Bob, Sue and Ann is shown. Every developer gets only one task at a time and each task needs to be completed in the confined time. Task T1 is initialized by Bob in week 1. Similarly Sue starts the second task named T2 in week 1 and Ann begins with Task T3 in same week. After auspicious consummation of Task T1, T2 and T3, Task T4 is initiated by Bob in week 2. Ann starts Task T5 in week 3 which after culmination imprints the beginning of Task T6 by Ann. Sue consumes week 3 and 4 for completing the Task T7. Both Ann and Sue work together for efficient compilation of Task T8 in week 3. Task T10 is culminated in week 7 and 8 by pairing up Sue and Bob after completion of Task T9 which was carried out by Bob alone. Many tasks in the whole process which were solely independent of other tasks were initialized simultaneously which speeded up the development process. The tasks which were dependent on outputs of other tasks were started after accomplished fulfilment of previous tasks. Overall completion of all the tasks takes around 10 weeks. All this is depicted in the above staff allocation diagram.








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