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{Re: Tutorial 5 where we analysed Landscape – see template used (student worksheet) - also refer to posted solution to Landscape located in Tutorial 5 folder as a guide.}

Question 1: Is there an Ethical Dilemma?  Your requirement is to briefly discuss any ethical issues related to all of the people mentioned in the narrative. This question focuses on your ability to recognize the existence of ethical dilemmas. There may be many events that occurred in the narrative which you feel are “ethically suspect” however a careful, well thought-out, impartial, and well-presented outline of the sequence of events (i.e. the required “discussion” above) should reveal what the ethical dilemmas in the narrative are!  Given the luxury of “hindsight” (by reading the narrative) there may be a series of events that have contributed to the current situation however basing your response on emotion (person X was wrong, s/he should be sacked,  …, etc. ) or a simple statement such as Yes to the question will attract no marks.

As part of your answer to this question you will need to identify for yourself (as you read the narrative):-

a) The relevant facts contained in the narrative, b) The stakeholders (or major players) involved in the narrative, c) Which of these facts raised an ethical issue and by whom – need to briefly identify what each ethical issue raised consisted of. This question requires you to be impartial, unemotional and factual   stick to the facts, only consider the evidence (as given in the narrative) and don’t be tempted to impose your (emotional) thoughts or judgement into the answer. You will have plenty of opportunity in the next question to “pass judgement” (what should have happened, steps to rectify, … etc.). 

Your answer to this question can be thought of as a process of gaining an accurate and unemotional factual view of the sequence of related events, then, writing a report on this sequence as a background or situation brief (say, to your manager) - identifying in your brief any ethical dilemmas that need to be addressed. Your answer does not required you to perform an ethical analysis (that’s the next question!) of the narrative – rather gain and provide clear and accurate “picture” or insight into all the related events from an ethical viewpoint.  

Question 2:  Four-step Ethical Analysis and Decision Making Process  Your requirement is to perform a detailed ethical analysis and decision making process concerning the narrative. The steps (and sub-headings) have been clearly enumerated on the assignment and should be straightforward to follow (the “what to do” part). The guidelines presented here will focus on the “how to do” part. Understanding the situation: 1. When listing facts – do only that - emotions/opinions/…, have no part to play here. Must include all the facts though… 2. When listing the stakeholders – it is important to identify what part - this is often done as what position/responsibility - that each person occupies/perform within the organization. 3. Identify and list any facts that involve any ethical issues – must include what each ethical issue is raised for each fact that is included. (Note that an event (fact) may raise more than one ethical issue – each ethical issue raised for that fact must be identified.) This step is vital and well worth spending considerable effort on as the remaining steps are very much dependant on you having a very clear and accurate understanding of the problem (i.e. the facts and their related ethical issues). Do not be influenced by emotion, ego, or similar judgemental feelings while doing this step. The whole basis of doing the following 2 steps – Identifying the major Ethical Dilemma and performing your Ethical Analysis is dependent on the existence and  truth of each fact (including its related ethical issues)! 

Isolating the Major Ethical Dilemma  This step requires you to be able to identify what an ethical dilemma is and be able to assess their relative importance. It is possible that many ethical issues/principles have been raised or transgressed in the narrative. However it is the decision that is being faced NOW that is the current Major Ethical Dilemma. There may be many decisions made previously that have contributed to the current situation – each of these have their own ethical issues – but a decision has to be made now - and this itself has its own consequences!!!  An answer to this step would require a brief discussion (identifying but NOT JUDGING previous events and decisions made that may have contributed to the current situation, however your discussion should make (conclude with) a clear statement identifying exactly what the Major Ethical Dilemma currently is.  

Ethical Analysis You are required to perform 3 types of analysis (the actual questions are on the assignment), Consequentialism, Rights and Duties and Kant’s Categorical Imperative. Note that to answer each of the questions posed in each analysis, you must have clearly isolated the major Ethical Dilemma (which, like most dilemmas consists of 2 (or possibly more) courses of action (choices) with which to proceed). Performing each of these analysis steps effectively provides you with the direction or isolates out the ethical path to follow (which choice is “right”). 1. Consequentialism addresses harm and benefit issues -  2. Rights and Duties addresses abridged rights and/or neglected duties concerning each possible choice - , and 3. Kant’s Categorical Imperative addresses respect/disrespect, equality as well as benefit issues. 

Answering many of the posed questions should be straightforward however it is in the following discussion that you have to draw all your answers together. It is now that you may find seriously competing ethical factors. That is, consequentialism may indicate one choice while Rights and Duties may clearly indicate the opposite choice of course of action. Your discussion then should summarize which analysis favours/indicates which course of action, then you need to (finally!!) make a judgement as to which would be the best course of action and, most importantly, WHY. During this step it is your ethical values that may well be on display and your ethical reasoning, judgement, ethical argument (not emotive but analytic, well-reasoned or even compelling) will need to be presented.   

Making a Decision  This step requires you make a defensible decision (and in this scenario the defensible part directly refers to an ethically defensible decision). The basis of your decision is of course from the above discussion that summarizes your ethical analysis step. You should express your decision in clear, unemotional, succinct terms so that there is no possibility of being miss-interpretation or confusion… Basically it is the best course of action (from, possibly, the many courses of action that have been previously identified/stated in “Isolating the Major Ethical Dilemma”) after considering/evaluating all your Ethical Analysis steps. {So far we have not addressed any contributing factors such as any previous ethical decisions (which may not be so well founded as the one you have just made) that may have contributed to your current dilemma. It is normal in most (ethical) decision making processes to identify those decisions that “placed you in your current predicament” however analysis of each of these is outside the” terms of reference” of your current decision (other than their identification). It is normal for either another – more impartial body - to examine these sequence of events (in which serious/major shortcomings are involved) with a purpose of rectifying, improving, etc.(again without emotion) , or, a separate (ethical ) decision/planning exercise (in-house) initiated to examine and rectify.}

Your conclusion to this assignment should be the listing of all the steps needed to actually implement your defensible ethical decision. Again - in terms of clear, unambiguous steps or actions and normally expressed in chronological order (if timing is important).

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