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What is psychological egoism?

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  • Post Date 2018-11-08T08:56:52+00:00
  • Post Category New Samples

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What is psychological egoism?

Using Psychological Egoism to Explain Human Behavior

INSTRUCTIONS:

I will attach the instructions and article. PLEASE MAKE SURE TO CITE WORK BY USING QUOTATION MARKS, PLEASEE!!!!!!!! here is the topic: What is psychological egoism? Why is it thought to present a challenge to morality? Why might some one hold this view? Identify and explain at least two implications of psychological egoism (if it were true). Finally, is psychological egoism a persuasive view about human motivation? Why or why not? Please Make sure to follow instructions attached. Thesis is very important and citation May use different sources as well but please make sure to use the source I attached and make sure to cite every sources used!

 

PHLB07: Ethics

First Essay Assignment: Due Wednesday, February 12th

Please write a shorter critical essay on one of the following topics. Your essay must have a clear thesis statement that appears somewhere in your introductory paragraph. Be sure to thoroughly explain the philosophical position(s) that you may choose to write on, as well as the reasoning behind the objections that you may entertain. Remember to answer all components of the question that you choose.

Papers should be approximately 1200-1600 words, double-spaced with 12 pt font. Please refer to the syllabus for the late policy and instructions for using turnitin.com. All essays must include citations!! You may choose your preferred format, but you must include page numbers (where possible) and they must appear throughout the body of your essay (where appropriate). Please refer to the syllabus for information regarding academic misconduct.

1)    What is psychological egoism? Why is it thought to present a challenge to morality? Why might some one hold this view? Identify and explain at least two implications of psychological egoism (if it were true). Finally, is psychological egoism a persuasive view about human motivation? Why or why not?

2)    What is cultural relativism? Why is it thought to present a challenge to morality? Why might some one hold this view? Identify and explain at least two implications of cultural relativism (if it were true). Finally, are moral judgments really culturally relative? Why or why not?

3)    What is divine command theory? Why might it be thought to present a challenge to morality? Why might some one hold this view? Identify and explain at least two implications of divine command theory (if it were true). Finally, is divine command theory a persuasive view about the source of moral rules?

4)    Which of the views that we have looked at presents the greatest challenge to morality? Explain the view as well as the challenge that it poses. Be sure to explain why you think this is such a serious challenge. Do you agree with the reasoning that supports this view? Why or why not?

 

Be sure to engage with the strongest possible objection (that you can think of) to your argument. This will include explaining the reasoning behind the objection, and showing why you find it unsound (is it relying on a false premise? on faulty reasoning? or both?).

The following is a link to some resources that you might find helpful for writing philosophy papers:

http://www.philosophy.utoronto.ca/undergraduate/utsc/for--students/writing--philosophy-papers

Remember that you must submit a hard copy of your essay for grading in addition to submitting to turnitin.com (or complying with the alternative instructions). Please see the course syllabus for our course information.

A note on late papers: If you are not able to submit your hard copy in class, submissions to turnitin.com will stop the late clock (submissions must be received by 11:59 on the date they will count as being handed in). Hard copies can be submitted to the philosophy department drop box (located in front of the philosophy department) at your convenience. Please do not email me your paper unless you are following the instructions to opt out of using turnitin.com.

CONTENT:
Using Psychological Egoism to Explain Human BehaviorNameUniversity Using Psychological Egoism to Explain Human BehaviorIt is widely thought that human behavior is informed by moral principles for the most part. People think before they act, and they often act in a manner that other reasonable persons can approve as morally acceptable. For instance, lending a neighbor a hammer is moral because good neighbors help each other. However, the theory of psychological egoism suggests that people`s actions are not informed by moral values, but self interests. In that case, the person who lends his neighbor a hammer does so perhaps not because it is moral to help one another, but because he hopes to create good relations so that next time he will be helped in return. Therefore, he lends out the hammer to serve his future self-interests. In this essay I discuss the tenets of psychological egoism, and why it is a persuasive explanation of human behavior. I argue that psychological egoism is a persuasive viewpoint in understanding human actions because it points to the reality of human life. However, it has a weakness since it does not have universal standards of interpreting human behavior in different situations.The theory of psychological egoism argues that human behavior is motivated by the pursuit of self interests. It states that “Purely altruistic and benevolent actions and desires do not exist” (Feinberg, 1958, 9. 494). People mind the welfare of others only when it advances their own well-being, happiness, or interests. For instance, business companies engage in social responsibility projects because it not only promotes their public image, but also helps to market their products to the community benefiting from such projects. The theory, therefore, is not a normative view that states what ought to be the proper or morally/ethically acceptable human behavior, but a descriptive view that explains what actually motivates human behavior. Similarly, psychological egoism does not prescribe the ethical ideals, values or principles that should inform human actions and behavior. Instead, it describes the “psychological facts” behind people`s actions and behaviors. For instance, people rationalizes that doing what others would see as good will improve their public image (such as helping the poor), which is a selfish motive.Another line of argument that the concept of psychological egoism proposes is that human beings do not merely “put their own interests first” as a matter of fact in everything they do, but are, simply and plainly, incapable of doing anything on purely altruistic principles (Feinberg, 1958). In other words, human beings cannot help not to be self-centered in their actions. Anything that they do, or whichever way they behave, is motivated by a selfish interest. This reality can be seen in corporate social responsibility, philanthropy, and politi...

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