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What is its history?


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What is its history?

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing


BHS220 Module 4 - Background


Required Reading:

Michelson, S. & Schofield, T. (2002). Chapter 2: Inference (pages 45-53). In: The Biostatistics Cookbook: The Most User-Friendly Guide for the Bio/Medical Scientist. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Available in Ebrary, accessed via Trident’s online library.

Additional Reading (Optional)

Davis, R. and Mukamal, K. (2006). Statistical Primer for Cardiovascular Research: Hypothesis testing. Retrieved from http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/114/10/1078.full

McDonald, JH (2009). Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Retrieved from http://udel.edu/~mcdonald/stathyptesting.html

Johnson, L. (2008). Principles of Hypothesis Testing for Public Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from www.nihtraining.com/cc/ippcr/current/downloads/HypoTest.pdf

Additional Resources (Optional)

Creative Heuristics (2011, Dec.). Hypothesis tests, p-value - Statistics Help. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zZYBALbZgg

Creative Heuristics (2011, Oct. ) Understanding the p-value - Statistics Help. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyknGvncKLw

Stenson, E. (2012, Apr.) Basic statistics tutorial 45 Hypothesis testing (one-sided), sample and population mean (z). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKxyXs6kRTo

Module 4 - Case


Assignment Overview

Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults in the United States which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Here are the data:

Data table: attached

Case Assignment

Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?

Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.

Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT) /( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.

What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the values in the 18–44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / ( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability. Show your work.

Assignment Expectations

Use the information in the modular background readings as well as resources you find through ProQuest or other online sources. Please be sure to cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper. Submit the paper as a Word document through the link provided for the assignment.

BHS 220 Module 4 - Case-INTRODUCTION TO HYPOTHESIS TESTINGNameCourseInstructorDate ProbabilityProbability is an integral component of statistics, with the frequency of an outcome, whereby determining the relative frequency of a population (Cook et al., 2004). When there is no prior knowledge about the possible outcomes of an event, then there is an assumption that all outcomes have an equal chance of occurring. The outcomes are mutually exclusive while the events are independent. Probabilities representing the possible outcomes help to demonstrate probability distributions, with the shape of the probability distribution curve influenced by the mathematical distribution (Cook et al., 2004). In the standard normal distribution, it is assumed that the population is truly homogenous when calculating for the Z-test. Furthermore, the underlying distribution is assumed to be normal, with sample distribution being homogenous (Michelson & Schofield, 2002).Probability relates to the likelihood of an event happening, where a value of 0 indicates that there are no chances fro the event to occur, while 1 indicates that there is certainty that the event will definitely occur. The history of probability was started with the need to utilize computing methods to improve chances of winning during gambling games in France during the 1...

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