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In this paper, you are required to provide a report on the Global War on Terrorism. You are asked to discuss International Law on Terrorism and How the US Counterinsurgency Achieved Success in Afghanistan. Furthermore, Discuss the pros and cons of Multilateral Diplomacy versus Bilateral Diplomacy and FATF Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing in your report. Finally, explain the Significance of “Intelligence” And “Initiative” To Counterterrorism Process.
Terrorism has been has been a great menace to the safety and security of independent nations. Authors and counter terrorism experts have since addressed the issue in books and journals to aid in better understanding of the subject. The aggressiveness of covering terrorism was heightened after the terror attack in the US in September 11 (McCrisken, 2011, p. 782).
International Law on Terrorism
Terrorism brings about a new dimension of war which cannot be contained through the already established set of international laws. The international law on war needs to be modified to cover all aspects of global terrorism and provide sufficient directions on how to mould the threat. However, the adequacy of the current international law in countering terrorism threat cannot be doubted. The current law is adequate but contains gaps especially with the prosecution process which requires a better structure. The law is also faced with possible disrespect by terrorists and terror groups. This is one of the most serious problems that the law is facing. Although the law needs modification, the greater challenge is establishing means by which the law can gain more respect. Respect for the law would deter terrorists from using illegal and inhuman activities as a platform to bargain for their rights or demands. The law needs to establish a strong and powerful prosecution process that dehumanizes terrorists and their activities (cited in Wallace, 2012).
How the US Counterinsurgency Achieved Success in Afghanistan
The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) is one of the most determined and dangerous jihad group in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The US counterinsurgency on the group achieved their objectives through genius strategic operations by the military. This counterinsurgency operation involved building a relatively large US military force in Afghanistan. The chief idea of building the strong military force was to protect the Afghan civilians and counteracting the networks of the insurgents. The chief success factor was maintaining robust numbers of the military forces on the ground. Another strategy that led to success was strengthening the Afghan security forces and the support for establishment of a legitimate government in the country. The support and collaboration with the local national security forces provided the US military with valuable information on how to counter the LeT insurgents. The use of high-end military intelligence was another success factor as the military force was able to get insider information on the insurgents regarding their networks and operations (Tankel, 2011, p. 12).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Multilateral Diplomacy versus Bilateral Diplomacy
One advantage of multilateral diplomacy over bilateral is creation of a level negotiation ground among states. Usually, nations have different levels of political, economic and social levels and multilateral diplomacy creates a balance among nations regardless of the differences as opposed to bilateral diplomacy individualistic motives. Multilateral diplomacy advocates for building coalitions among states hence promoting common interests among them. On the other hand, bilateral diplomacy promotes individual interest which may not be achieved by less powerful states. Multilateral diplomacy provides a platform for the states to formulate and harmonize transnational policies such as international trade and security strategies. Bilateral diplomacy lacks such a forum and individual nations bargain for their own needs (cited in Wiseman, 2011).
According to Wiseman (2011), the chief disadvantage of multilateral diplomacy over bilateral diplomacy is presence of different priorities among states. Different states have different propositions and multilateral approach may compromise some proposals in respect to timeline and approval as opposed to bilateral approach. Use of multilateral diplomacy is faced with difficulties in organizational matters. Different countries are governed by distinct set of laws and working collaboratively with other countries proves to be difficult due to confusion and slow decision making. This is opposed to bilateral diplomacy since it has got less structural barriers.
FATF Nine Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing The first Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendation is the implementation and endorsement of the UN instruments regarding suppressing funding of terror groups. The second recommendation involves criminalization of terrorism funding where such activities are classified as money laundering. The third proposal is where each country is recommended to freeze the assets and delay or extinguish any payment to terrorists and terror groups. The fourth recommendation urges every financial institution to report doubtful transactions that may be linked to terrorism to the respective authorities. FATF also urges international cooperation among countries in fighting terrorism through information and material exchange. FATF also recommends that every country formal and informal money transfer institutions be fully licensed. FATF proposes that wire transfers should be fully documented and monitored in order to identify suspicious transfers. The task force also recommends countries to scrutinize all funding activities made by Non-profit organizations. Finally, FATF recommend countries to establish measures to detect cross border cash transit (cited in Thony & Png, 2007).
Significance of “Intelligence” And “Initiative” To Counterterrorism Process
Intelligence involves collection, provision and consequent evaluation of information that can assist the military and other government organizations in fighting terrorism and terror threats. Counterterrorism intelligence also examines the leadership hierarchy of the terror groups, their plans as well as their supporters. Connectively, an initiative in respect to counterterrorism enables the key stakeholders to design the most appropriate action or strategy to take in countering terror threat. It allows them to assess the intended purpose before commencing on the desired operation (cited in Koschade, 2006).
Fighting terrorism is one the current global assignment for all countries in the world. Various laws, multilateral and bilateral agreements have since been established to aid in the war against terror (McCrisken, 2011, p. 787).