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IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND HYPERTENSION?

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IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND HYPERTENSION?

Q1: Is there an association between smoking (Yes/No) and hypertension? (Note: you will need to create a new variable called `SMOKER’ which will contain two groups (`Yes’ or `No’) using information on the number of cigarettes smoked per day). In the new variable name include the number of the dataset you have been assigned e.g if you have been assigned the dataset `Framingham_42.sav’, name the variable `SMOKER_42’.

Analytical plan:

STUDY DESIGN

Observational-Framinton heart study was a cross sectional study

VARIABLES

IV : Smoker –categorical dichotomous

DV : Hypertension – categorical dichotomous

HYPOTHESIS

H0: The proportion of people who smoke is similar for people with hypertension and those without Hypertension

H1: The proportion of people who smoke is different for people with hypertension and those without Hypertension

UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS

Smoker-numerical summary =proportion (or %) of sample with people with smoking habit; graphical summary could be a bar graph {note: since the data is dichotomous it is usually better to summarize numerically}

Hypertension-numerical summary=proportion (or %) of sample with hypertension; graphical summary could be a bar graph.

BIVARIATE ANALYSIS

In this bivariate analysis we do the cross tabulation by contingency which interpret the results between the relation between hypertension and smokers

Numerical summary=2 x 2 contingency table Graphical summary=side –by- side bar chart

STATISTICAL TESTS AND ASSUMPTIONS

Chi-square test of independent .because the table is 2x2 should use Fisher’s exact test or Continuity Correction, rather than Pearson’s Chi-square .I will use Fisher’s exact test.{note:the choice of which test to use is up to you.You should state which test you are going to use and then llist the assumptions for the test}

Fisher’s exact test assumptions :1) observations are independent


SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS

P

Results:

Univariate analysis:

In this sample there are 300 individuals in smoker_29 we have valid individuals of 296 are valid but we have 4 missing. In this sample the 166(55.3%) do not smoke ,130(43.3%) people do smoking as we have 4(1.3%) could not be calculated due to the missing data. Among the same sample 78(26%) are not with incident hypertension,222(74%) are the individuals with hypertension.

The below tables shows the summary on the results provided in the frequency tables.

Statistics

 

 

 

Smoker_29

Incident Hypertension

 

 

 

 

N

valid

296

300

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

4

0

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING UNIVARIABLE ANALYSIS -SMOKER_29

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative

 

 

 

percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

No

166

55.3

56.1

56.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

130

43.3

43.9

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

296

98.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing  999

4

1.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

300

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY TABLE SHOWING UNIVARIABLE ANALYSIS - INCIDENT

 

HYPERTENSION

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative

 

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid   No

78

26.0

26.0

26.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

222

74.0

74.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

300

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graphical Representation

In univariate analysis the representation is done by bar diagram as they are categorical variable on which incident hypertension on x-axis and count on y- axis .

GRAPH SHOWING UNIVARIATE VARIABLE (INCIDENT HYPERTENSION)

In this bar diagram it shows about the smoker_29 on which count is on y- axis and smoker_29 is on x-axis showing yes and no. The number of people who smoke are more when compared to non smokers .

Bivariate analysis


In this analysis the sample consist of valid individuals of 296(98.7%) and 4(1.3%) are missing

Case processing summary

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

 

Missing

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Percent

N

 

Percent

N

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incident

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hypertension*

296

 

98.7%

4

 

1.3%

300

 

100.0%

SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this contingency table here gives the interpretation of results between the relation of hypertension and smoker_29. Here we have an clear description that there are 31(39.4%) individuals do not smoke have no hypertension,47(60.3%) do smoke but do not have the hypertension. In the same sample individuals 135(61.9%) do not smoke but they have hypertension,83(38.1%)they do smoke and have hypertension.

Incident Hypertension*SMOKER_29 crosstabulation

 

 

 

 

SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incident

No

Count

31

47

78

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

%within Incident

39.7%

60.3%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Count

135

83

218

 

 

 

%within Incident

 

 

 

 

 

 

61.9%

38.1%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

Count

166

130

296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

%within Incident

56.1%

43.9%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                    

 

Incident Hypertension*SMOKER_29 crosstabulation

 

 

 

 

SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incident

No

Count

31

47

78

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

%within Incident

39.7%

60.3%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Count

135

83

218

 

 

 

%within Incident

 

 

 

 

 

 

61.9%

38.1%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

Count

166

130

296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

%within Incident

56.1%

43.9%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graphical representation

In bivariate analysis the relation of incident hypertension and smoker-29 is shown by the side –by-side diagram.

Chi-square analysis:

In this sample we do Chi-square tests because it is the 2x2 contingency table.In this we get the degree of freedom, the continuity correction and Fisher’s exact test are calculated.

For Fisher’s exact test we use two tailed hypothesis. Hence the p-value for this sample is 0.001.this means it is lesser than 0.05.this means we reject the null hypothesis as we do not have any significant analysis and conclude that the proportion of people who smoke is different for people with hypertension and those without Hypertension as we know that the Fisher’s Exact Test observations are independent as it is due to the study design.

The proportion of people who smoke is different for people with hypertension and those without Hypertension the Fisher’s Exact test,p=0.001)

This summary, gives a clear descriptive summary and provides the explanation of the data and the relationship between the smokers_29 and hypertension.

Chi – Square Tests

 

 

 

 

Asympotic

Exact sig.

Exact Sig.

 

Value

Df

Significance

(2-sided)

(1-sided)

 

 

 

( 2 sided)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pearson Chi-square

11.477a

1

.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continuity correction

10.594

1

.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Likelihood Ratio

11.440

1

.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fisher Exact Test

 

 

 

.001

.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

Linear-by-linear

11.438

1

.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Association

296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N of Valid Cases

11.477a

1

.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY:

This is the data which shows consists of two variables with independent variable as smoker_29 and dependent variable as hypertension these are dichotonomous categorical variables which are done with graphical representation by bar diagrams and bivariate by side by side chart. The statistical analysis is done by chi square test in which fisher exact value i.e p value is 0.001 which is lesser than 0.05 in which we reject the null hypothesis and shows the that the proportion of people who smoke is different for people with hypertension and those without Hypertension

APPENDIX:

 Statistics

 

 

 

Incident

 

 

SMOKER_29

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

N

Valid

296

300

 

Missing

4

0

 

 

 

 

 FREQUENCY TABLE

 SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

No

166

55.3

56.1

56.1

 

Yes

130

43.3

43.9

100.0

 

Total

296

98.7

100.0

 

Missing

999

4

1.3

 

 

Total

 

300

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incident Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

Valid  No

78

26.0

26.0

26.0

Yes

222

74.0

74.0

100.0

Total

300

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CROSS TABS

 Case Processing Summary

 

Cases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

 

Missing

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

Percent

N

Percent

N

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incident Hypertension *

296

98.7%

4

1.3%

300

100.0%

 

SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Incident Hypertension * SMOKER_29 Crosstabulation

 Count

 

 

SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

Total

 

 

 

 

 

Incident

No

31

47

78

Hypertension

Yes

135

83

218

Total

 

166

130

296

 

 

 

 

  


I
ncident Hypertension*SMOKER_29 crosstabulation

 

 

 

SMOKER_29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No

Yes

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incident

No

Count

31

47

78

 

Hypertension

 

% within Incident

39.7%

60.3%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

Count

135

83

218

 

 

 

% within Incident

61.9%

38.1%

100.0%

 

 

 

Hypertension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

Count

166

130

296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

% within Incident

56.1%      43.9%       100.0%

Hypertension

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asymptotic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Significance

Exact Sig. (2-

Exact Sig. (1-

 

 

Value

df

(2-sided)

sided)

sided)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pearson Chi-Square

11.477a

1

.001

 

 

 

Continuity Correctionb

10.594

1

.001

 

 

 

Likelihood Ratio

11.440

1

.001

 

 

 

Fisher`s Exact Test

 

 

 

.001

.001

 

Linear-by-Linear

11.438

1

.001

 

 

 

Association

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N of Valid Cases

296

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                    

 

 


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  • Title: IS THERE AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND HYPERTENSION?
  • Price: £ 109
  • Post Date: 2018-11-09T10:18:07+00:00
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