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The aim of this study is to evaluate the waste management and reduction practices along with the utilisation of it in order to generate energy in Pakistan. For this purpose, the case study of Lahore will be used so that specific information related to the topic is provided. It is noticed that Pakistan is the 6th largest population country, which demonstrates that waste problem is high in the country due to extensive population growth. In Pakistan, waste is produced on a large scale but it is not utilised effectively to generate energy. Although the country makes use of some of the waste but more than half of the waste is left behind which can be used to produce energy such as heat and electricity to more country economically viable. In this proposed study only secondary data will be gathered which will be obtained from different studies available on the generation of energy from waste management and reduction in Pakistan.
Pakistan which is also known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is agricultural country located in South Asia with a population of over 191.71 million (2015), making an it 6th populous country. Moreover, in terms of area, it is 36th largest as it has an area of 881,913 km2. It is noticed that the urban population of the country increased by more than sevenfold, while, the total population has grown by more than fourfold. Population growth is high in the country due to which it has to face a significant problem of waste generation. The production of solid waste in the country arrays from 0.283 to 0.612 per kg or capita in a day and the evolution proportion of waste generation is 2.4% in a year. There are different types of wastes generated in Pakistan, which includes agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and hazardous waste. With the high amount of waste, the country focuses on generating energy from these wastes but it has not been very successful in this process due to inadequate systems. Currently, the country generates about 65,000 MW and has the potential to produce about 100,000MW of energy from the waste.
Waste is produced in large and massive amount every day and it can be in any form depending on usage of product and production waste. It has always been a challenge to tackle waste effectively. With high population growth demand, for food consumption has also increased due to which increasing waste is generated. The main objective is to generate energy from waste management and its reduction. It is noticed that Pakistan is energy deficient country and produces a high amount of waste that can be used conveniently for generating energy. Although, waste management is working in Pakistan but it is on the very low scale as compared to other countries. It is important to develop public awareness regarding wastes generation. Still a large amount of waste is dumped outside the city, which can cause airborne disease and also cross contamination by different modes. This demonstrates the fact that waste is the significant problem in the Pakistan and needs to be dealt effectively in order to meet the increasing demand for energy. Significant waste management and reduction techniques are not being implemented in the country successfully due to which problem of limited energy generation is taking place (Batool & Chuadhry, 2009).
The aim of the study is to evaluate waste management and reduction practices in Pakistan in order to generate energy by considering the case study of Lahore. The research objectives that are used are as follows:
Batool et al (2008) stated that a lot of waste is produced in Pakistan on a daily basis from homes, factories, offices, hospitals, farms, and others. This increasing problem of waste is giving rise to different pollution problems. This makes it important for Pakistan to manage or reduce the waste by reusing as much of the waste as possible. It is noticed that domestic solid waste is not managed adequately and satisfactorily in Pakistan due to insufficient transportation, collection, and dumping facilities. The urban areas of the country produce more than fifty-five thousand tons of solid wastes on the daily basis. This demonstrates the significant waste problem in different parts of the country. According to Tufail & Khalid (2008), Karachi alone produces more than seven thousand tons of solid waste regularly. Thousands of ancillary mismanaged collection dumps are there in the city, which causes evident environmental filth locally. Moreover, the waste pickers scatter waste on different public locations due to which pollution is created on a large scale directly or indirectly. The major reason behind increasing waste problem in Pakistan is the unsatisfactory solid waste management services.
Sheikh (2010)stated that it is essential to decrease existing extent of waste generation and increasing energy and material recovery. This is regarded as the essential step that is directed towards an environmentally friendly waste management system. Moreover, the landfill is not the first choice of disposal among other processes that includes composting, recycling, and incineration. Chaudhry et al (2009) highlighted the fact that solid waste management can be promoted by considering the use of different innovative technologies. It is noticed that various waste to energy schemes are introduced which contributes to the recovery of energy efficiently. These include anaerobic digestion, thermal conversion, and landfill. With the help of these technologies, particular quantity, and composition of solid waste can be managed effectively. This demonstrated the fact that waste to energy status in Pakistan is not very strong as they are not able to utilise proper technological advancements to generate energy.
According to Munir & Gibbs (2010), there are different techniques that can be used by the concerned authorities in Pakistan to convert waste into energy. Some of the prominent treatment options are as follows:
This is the process in which decomposable solid is broken down with the help of microbes in the absence of oxygen. Under this method, some special reactors are used in order to support digestion process. Moreover, controlled particular conditions are provided in the reactors such as moisture content, pH, and temperature. The main aim of these conditions is to give a favourable environment to the microbes so that their number increases and enhances the process of degradation, which ultimately generates methane. However, this method results in successful outcome if the wastes possess a high quantity of organics (Bhutto, et al., 2011).
This technique is also regarded as thermal and combustion treatment of raw waste. In this method, the burning of organic fraction, which includes combustible, plastic, and putrescible is supported due to which residues and gasses are generated. Moreover, Zaigham & Nayyar (2005) argued that with the help of thermal treatment, the quantity of waste would be decreased along with the diversion of solid wastes from the landfills. This demonstrates the fact that thermal treatment possesses the capability to recover energy along with the recovery and reuse of different minerals and chemicals obtained from wastes. It is noticed that through incineration, various toxic substances that are present in solid waste are destroyed.
According to Amjid et al (2011), the current solid waste management system is the means of health and environmental concerns for the people because of insufficient containment of municipal waste, haphazard waste disposal, and low waste collection rate, low technical and managerial skills of waste disposal employees, concerns related to occupational health and safety and others. It is noticed that due to inadequate waste management significant impacts are noticed which includes environmental and health impacts, social impacts, transportation-related social issues, and economic issues. These affect the citizen in an adverse manner giving rise to significant issues in the society and environment. Therefore, it is important for the concerned authorities to determine the effective manner in which wastes can be utilised or managed. One method of ensuring waste reduces and management is the generation of energy, as it would solve power problems in the country.
Research method determines the nature of the study that will be followed in completing the research. Two research methods are qualitative and quantitative from which one will be selected depending on the scope of the study. Qualitative research method will be used in the proposed research due to the fact that it does not involve the use of statistical approach and collection of primary. Moreover, depending on the context of the study, the qualitative method will be regarded as appropriate because it will assist in gathering supportive data conveniently (Taylor, et al., 2015).
Two types of research approaches are there which includes inductive and deductive from which the approach that suits the nature of the study will be selected. For this proposed study, the research approach that will be used is inductive because it involves the use of precedent studies to evaluate the research aim and objectives. This is the vital part of qualitative studies due to which research will make use of inductive approach so that research context is analysed from wide perspectives (Silverman, 2010).
Various research designs include ethnography, descriptive, historical, and others. For this proposed study, the research design that will be used is historical because it involves the collection of data from precedent studies. Under this design, the researcher will evaluate research aim and objectives from the perspective of different scholars (Kumar, 2010).
The research strategy that will be used in this proposed study is a case study. This method will be used because it would help the researcher in obtaining relevant and reliable information related to energy from waste management and reduction in Pakistan. The research will make use of Lahore as the case study in order to explain the research aim and objectives successfully (Flick, 2011).
The data collection method that will be focused on this proposed research is secondary. This is the type of information that has already been gathered by different authors and is published in various precedent studies. The studies will be searched from different search engines and databases such as Jstor, Google Scholar, EBSCOHost, and others (Kuada, 2012).
Two data analysis techniques are qualitative and quantitative which are selected depending on the nature of the study. In this proposed study, the data analysis technique that will be used is qualitative because it is the method of evaluating the secondary data in relation to the research aim and objectives effectively. It will utilise content analysis for evaluating the gathered data in the context of the study (Blessing & Chakrabarti, 2009).
Ethical consideration forms the important part of the study which researcher will have to consider. Plagiarism is the important ethic that researcher will have to consider at the time of completing the proposed study. The researcher will have to make sure that all the content is written in own words and is not copy pasted from any study (Sreedharan, 2007).
Submission of Proposal
Introduction of Study
Gather Records regarding Selected Case Study
Writing Results and Discussion
Conclude and Recommend for Further Studies
Compile and Proofreading
Submission of Final Paper
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