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Question 1. Transcription practice (3 marks)
In the box below demonstrate your phonemic transcription skills by transcribing the names provided. If you’re unsure of the pronunciation of these names, you’ll find an audio file in the Assessment block of the unit’s Moodle page. Include stress marking, where appropriate, using either the IPA stress diacritics.
The dataset below is a representative sample of words from Language B, transcribed phonetically. The syllables are marked by full stops. The next five questions relate to this data. Questions 2-4 guide you through the analytical steps for determining whether the sounds [b] and [β], [d] and [z], and [g] and [ɣ]
are in complementary distribution. Questions 5-6 require you to conduct other analyses without guidance.
Question 2. Identify the key articulatory features (4 marks) ) [length: confine your answer to the boxes below]
Describe the members of both sets of speech sound, [b d g] and [β z ɣ]. In the
Table below provide the three term label (voice+place+manner) for each sound, then after ‘These sounds are’ state the feature or features that the three sounds in that column share. Note: Features are category labels like [+/-sonorant], [+/- bilabial] etc.
[ b d g ]
[ β z ɣ ]
three term label
[ b ]
[ β ]
[ d ]
[ z ]
[ g ]
[ ɣ ]
These sounds are
Question 3. Determine if there is complementary distribution (4 marks)
Study the data for evidence of complementary distribution between [b] and [β],
[d] and [z], and [g] and [ɣ]. If there is no complementary distribution, list the shared (or overlapping) distributions which support the analysis. If, on the other hand, there is complementary distribution, list the relevant distributions for each
phone, and summarise your findings so as to describe the different distributions
of the two classes of allophone.
Question 4. Phonological rule writing (4 marks) [length: confine your answer to the boxes below]
In qu 3 you decided whether [b] and [β], [d] and [z], and [g] and [ɣ] were in
complementary distribution or not. In qu 4 you get to represent that decision as a phonological rule.
Question 5. Oral & nasal vowels (2 marks) ) [length: confine your answer to the boxes below]
Decide whether oral and nasal vowels are, or are not, in complementary distribution (ie. are [ã] and [a] separate phonemes, or allophones of one phoneme?).
Question 6. Word stress (2 marks) [length: confine your answer to the text box] Describe the regular pattern of stress assignment in Language B words. State which word violates the regular rule.
Question 7. Phrase Structure trees (4 marks) [length: just draw the two trees in the boxes below]
Draw phrase structure trees for the following two sentences, using the PS rules on page 236 of our textbook. You can paste in trees from tree-drawing software if you want to, but you are welcome to draw your trees by hand then scan your worksheet to submit it electronically. Be sure to do your full working out on another sheet, then just transfer your finished tree to the boxes provided here.
Question 8. Types of subordinate clause (3 marks) [length: just three sentences]
Demonstrate your knowledge of the types of subordinate clause by making up sentences of your own. To make them clearly original, make them about UNE/this unit/Nick (flattery doesn’t (officially) get extra marks) or something clearly specific to yourself.
Question 9. Ambiguity (3 marks) [length: just a paragraph of no more than 10 lines]
The sentence ‘I once shot an elephant in my pyjamas’ is structurally ambiguous. In your own words:
i) say what the two meanings are
ii) say whether the ambiguity is lexical or syntactic
iii) explain the structural differences between the two interpretations, making reference to the positioning of phrases within trees.
Part 2 of the Worksheet involves a detailed analysis and description of some basic structural properties of an unfamiliar language – Language Y. You will need to download the Language Y data-set, which is a separate document available from the Assessment block.
Your job is to analyse the data carefully and then write answers to questions 10- 14 below. Take care to describe the grammar of the Language Y sentences themselves, and not the grammar of the English translations.
This kind of analysis does not require you to cite other sources. Questions 10-13 do not require lengthy answers, just lists of morphemes, and pithy solutions.
Each question includes a guide of the expected length (eg 100 words or less). You should easily fit Part 2 into 2-3 A4 pages.
We often tweak or simplify data for the purpose of these kinds of tasks, so searching the internet for Language Y reference material will not be of use to you. Comparing real Language Y data with the data provided in our data-set would in fact be more work than just treating this as a freestanding exercise.
The Language Y data is phonemic, so each orthographic symbol can be assumed to represent a phoneme. The phoneme /ʔ/, a glottal stop, is represented in the orthography by an apostrophe, ie /aʔa/ is written a’a.
Question 10. Word classes (4 marks) [length: just a short paragraph for each]
Define the Language Y word classes (a) NOUN and (b) VERB in terms of their formal and functional criteria.
Question 11. Inflectional morphology (10 marks) [length: just the table of 20 morphemes below]
Language Y has 3 systems of inflectional morphology: (a) CASE, (b) INDEXING and (c) TENSE-ASPECT-MOOD-POLARITY. Our data provides evidence of 20 inflectional morphemes. To make things maximally simple for you, we`ve provided the labels for all 20 categories of information. Your job is just to identify the corresponding Language Y inflectional morpheme, using hyphens to indicate its affix type (e.g. prefix-, -infix-, -suffix, circum-X- fix).
Question 12. Morphophonemics (2 marks) [length: 100 words or less for each] Answer two of the following three:
a) How is number marked in Language Y?
b) How is reciprocality marked in Language Y?
c) Describe a phonological rule that affects affixes.
Question 13. Syntax phrase structure rules and tree (6 marks) [length: a small table of rules, and one tree diagram]
a) Propose a set of PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES that is capable of generating the Language Y sentences (1) to (10) of the data-set.
b) Adhering to your rules, draw a PHRASE STRUCTURE TREE for sentence (12). Assume that numerals in Language Y are adjectives.
Question 14. Provide translations for the following new Language Y sentences (4 marks) [Length: just in the boxes provided]