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This paper revolves around Comceptual Framework and Research Hypothesis. You are required to explain the expected association between use of social media site and impact on productivity.
Productivity is measured as how much and how well employee produces from given resources . If extra or improved good/service is produced from the same resource, it is referred to as increase in productivity. The factors that affects productivity in relation to use of social media in workplace includes addiction, distractions in work, decline in interpersonal skills, sharpening concentration, knowledge and learning, improved Communication, sharing of information and morale booster.
Addiction refers to excessive usage of social media by employees which may results in wastage of time. According to Chen et al (2008), employee that excessively uses social media sites and are addicted to them exhibits disorders like depression, sexual disorders and loneliness that negatively affects their productivity besides impeding the reputation of the company.
Study conducted by Accountemps in 2010 reported that 59% of 1,400 interviewed CFOs recognized the waste of time as the main concern of use of social media in workplace. Statistics also indicate that per month an average internet user normally spends 6 hours on Facebook, which increases manager’s worries that those 6 hours may be spent in the workplace . Some employees spends around 2 hours per day on Facebook in the workplace .
Distraction refers to diversion of attention away from work that disrupts employee’s concentration. For example, employee receive personal Facebook alerts, new feeds, sports news alerts and a range of other personal information that may divert them.
Decline in interpersonal skills
Decline in interpersonal skills refers to the likelihood of employees preferring email, Facebook chats, Viber etc. as communication means instead of direct conversations. As per, Diercksen et al, 2007, a major concern of use of social media is a decline in
interpersonal skills. The impact is already noticeable in the younger group of employees,
who prefer emailing or texting co‐workers instead of direct conversations.
Sharpening concentration refers to the assumption that brain will be relaxed and refreshed by taking short pauses/ breaks for social media uses and that results in sharpening employee’s concentration. Fahmy (2009) found that seventy percent of the employees who used social media sites for personal reasons resulted in sharpening their concentration.
Knowledge and Learning
Ashraf and Javed states that banks must develop right attitude in its staffs for using social media. It must be viewed as progressive and proper medium of social communication and must be used as a constructive means for learning new things, ideas and creating social contacts.
Another study found that companies gains competitive advantage if their top
Fahmy (2009), found that employees who uses social media sites are nine percent more productive because employees connected to others via social media are more social by nature and are skilled at working together with others along with solving the problems. Bennett et al (2010) defines the use of social media sites in workplace as an essential means for knowledge transfer and communication among internal and external stakeholders of an organization. Email, blogs, messaging, chatting, file sharing, discussion groups etc. are the means of communication social media sites can offer to the users. As majority of businesses relies on team works, those means help workforces to access new resources, data, information, contacts and develop professional networking. Various industries including tourism, entertainment, advertising etc. have adopted the social media sites in workplace and took its advantage .
Sharing of Information
Social media sites can also assist in forming a strong association among employees by providing them with the ability to better understand those with whom they are working. This social connection could then help develop the working relationship. The
improvement could include gaining a better understanding of what motivates the people
Study conducted by Moqbel, Nevo, & Kock (2013) identifies the use of social media in workplace as a main source of social support for employees and states that they should involve themselves in social media use to enhance work performance. It is because, forming a social network with people from various backgrounds would ultimately help employees to become happier at work, become more innovative and dedicated to the company, and perform better.
The primary objective of this study is to test a research model to explain the expected association between use of social media site and impact on productivity. The diagram (figure 1) below provides a conceptual framework to understand this relationship.
Sharpening Concentration Knowledge and Learning Improved Communication
Mora le boos ter
Use of Social Media
Distractions in work
Decline in Interpersonal
Productivity of Employee
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
This conceptual framework summarizes the possible impact of use of social media (independent variable) on productivity of employees (dependent variable) through variable such as addition, distraction, decline in interpersonal skills, sharpening
concentration, knowledge & learning, improved communication, information sharing and
Based on the problem statement and the objective of the research, following research
hypothesis can be proposed that would be tested in this study:
H0: Null Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace doesn’t positively and
significantly affects Concentration of employees.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace positively and
significantly affects concentration of employees.
significantly affects Knowledge and Learning of employees.
significantly affects Communication of employees.
significantly affects Information Sharing of employees.
significantly affects Morale of employees.
H0: Null Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace doesn’t significantly result in
addiction and wastage of time of employees.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace does result in addiction
and wastage of time of employees.
H0: Null Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace doesn’t significantly distract
employees from work.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace does significantly
distract employees from work.
H0: Null Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace doesn’t significantly affect the
interpersonal skills of employees.
H1: Alternative Hypothesis: Use of social media sites in workplace does significantly affect
the interpersonal skills of employees.
In order to effectively analyse the aim and objectives of the research proposal, below
mentioned methodologies will be undertaken in detail:
For the secondary data, various literatures will be reviewed in regard of this study. Therefore, Information and data available from various sources including Google scholar, CQU library online search, published journal articles, peer reviewed articles and various books will be studied and analysed in detail.
The target population of the study consists all the employees of top four banks in Australia that uses social media sites for the period under studies. The top four Banks are, Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA), Westpac Banking Corporation (Westpac), National Australia Bank (NAB), Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ). All the target population have access to the social media sites in their banks/offices including access from mobile devices.
As there is various level of employees in the bank, stratified probability sampling method will be applied to include all levels. The prospective employees who will take part in this study will be classified as “Executive Level”, “Managerial Level”, “Offer Level”, “Supervisor Level” and “Assistant Level/ ordinary employees”. This classification is made to ensure adequate representation of all the levels of employees in Banks.
All the employees of above mentioned banks who has access to the social media sites in
their workplace including access from mobile devices are the participants for this study.
25 employees from each level (segment) as classified above from each banks will be selected based on random sampling technique. As participants has been classified in to five different segments, 125 employees from each four banks will be selected. Hence, respondents of the study will consists of 500 participants.
Data collection method:
For data collection, observations, questionnaires and interviews techniques will be used. Majority of the questions will be close‐ended to enhance validity of the response. The
selected respondents from “Executive” and “Managerial” levels will be interviewed whereas questionnaires will be given to “Offer Level”, “Supervisor Level” and “Assistant Level/ ordinary employees”. Casual observations of the behaviour of the participants will also be carried out when they use social media sites on a computer or a smartphone. To identify the position of the employees within bank, list of employees from each bank’s HR department along with their position/level will be obtained.
The data and information collected from Literature reviews, observations, questionnaire and interviews will be scrutinized thoroughly using mixed methods i.e. qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques.
- Quantitative Data:
Quantitative or Numerical data will be obtained from questionnaire to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviours of the employees etc. Descriptive data analysis technique will be used to analyse quantitative data. A series of examinations and interpretations on the collected data will be carried out thoroughly to determine the average time an employee spends in accessing social sites per day, the motivations for the use and to explore impacts of these social sites on productivities factors.
- Qualitative Data:
Qualitative or non‐numerical data will be obtained by observations, interviews and literature reviews to gain the understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. Predictive data analysis techniques such as Analysis of variance (ANOVA), frequency, chi‐square and Pearson’s correlation will be undertaken to ascertain the degree of relationship between the variables.