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Research has found that the __________ becomes activated during challenging working-memory tasks.
A. limbic system
C. frontal lobe
After Pavlov trained his dogs to respond to the sound of a bell by salivating, he might have decided to show the dogs a striped handkerchief each time he rang the bell. Eventually, the handkerchief would have been able to cause the dogs to salivate, even if the bell was not sounded. This is an example of __________ conditioning.
Young Rachel is in her second-grade class, when the teacher announces a new challenge. “Every time you memorize a new poem and recite it before the entire class, you will get a gold star. As soon as you get twenty gold stars, you get to pick a prize out of the prize box!” The new star chart, a beautiful grid on multicolored poster board, is placed at the front of the class for all to see. Rachel immediately pulls out her reader and looks for a poem she can memorize. What type of conditioning has Rachel’s teacher used to help stimulate a memory-enhancing activity?
A. reinforcing conditioning
B. classical conditioning
C. vicarious conditioning
D. operant conditioning
Dr. Heritos watches with some amusement as her students struggle to find the right answers on their midterm exam, and her mind wanders to the parts of the brain that are involved in memory. As she sits in her chair proctoring the exam, which part of her brain is most active while she retrieves long-term memories?
A. the frontal lobe
B. the parietal lobe
C. the temporal lobe
D. the occipital lobe
I’ll never forget the day my daughter was born,” said Lakia’s mother. “I remember the people who were there, what they were wearing, how I felt, and the joy of seeing her for the first time!” Clearly, the birth of her daughter was a __________ to Lakia’s mother.
__________ forgetting is a type of forgetting in which a person is specifically told to forget about certain information.
The __________ distinction refers to the difference between what a person learns and its application on that particular day.
When two stimuli are associated to produce a reflexive response in an organism, that animal (or person. has demonstrated __________ conditioning.
Which type of encoding tends to lead to the longest amount of retention?
A. visual encoding
B. auditory encoding
C. semantic encoding
D. iconic encoding
Which bit of evidence suggests that eidetic memory isn’t truly photographic?
A. The fact that eidetic memory can only recall concepts and not specific details.
B. The fact that eidetic memory can also apply to auditory stimuli.
C. The fact that eidetikers sometimes make errors.
D. The fact that eidetikers have a much greater chance of being color-blind.
__________ encoding is the process of encoding meaning.
At a nightclub one evening, you are introduced to someone who you think is absolutely amazing – attractive, friendly, and well spoken – and you are beaming when you come away from that conversation with a telephone number. Because you have nothing to write with, however, you continue repeating the number to yourself so you won’t forget it until you write it down or store it in your cell phone. This process of repeating a stimulus again and again to keep it active in your memory is called __________.
A. semantic verbalization
B. working stimulation
C. rote rehearsal
D. repetitive activation
Which of the following is true about the relationship of the conditioned response (CR. to the unconditioned response (UR.?
A. The CR will be much stronger than the UR in classical condition.
B. The CR appears before the UR in classical conditioning.
C. The CR and the UR refer to the same action, but they are elicited by different stimuli.
D. The UR is something that will eventually extinguish, but the CR remains permanently.
Which observation of those with eidetic memory suggests that they are “seeing” their memories for longer than the usual duration of iconic memory?
A. Their eyes move as though they are looking at an image.
B. The visual registers in the brain are more fully developed in those with eidetic memory.
C. They do not experience REM (rapid eye movement. sleep, which suggests that their visual receptive processes are reserved exclusively for remembering.
D. Their memories are perfectly accurate, suggesting it is not just a “remembering” experience but also a form of a cognitive “visual” experience.
While __________ conditioning focuses on spreading a reflexive response to a new precipitating stimulus, __________ conditioning utilizes an organism’s ability to associate actions with future consequences.
A. operant; vicarious
B. vicarious; latent
C. latent; classical
D. classical; operant
When you are asked to “clear your mind and think of nothing,” this tends to be a very difficult feat to accomplish. Various images, thoughts, and “sounds” go flashing through your mind. The harder you try to think of nothing, the harder it is to think of nothing. Based on your reading of the chapter, why is “clear your mind” such a paradoxical instruction?
A. Because you are being given this instruction when you are surrounded by stimuli. Even if you close your eyes, the incoming information is impossible to block out.
B. Because the electrical impulses of the brain make the concept of “thinking of nothing” an impossibility.
C. Because your attention has been directed toward your own thoughts, which makes it difficult not to think of anything.
D. Because the physiological processes involved in thinking of “nothing” can only function when you are asleep or otherwise unconscious.
With regard to the three-stage model of memory suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin, what has recent research found?
A. There are, in fact, more than three types of memory storage.
B. The model is very accurate, as supported by the fact that people with sensory impairment like blindness or deafness have memory systems that are far less reliable than those without such deficits.
C. Encoding is a process whose importance was overestimated by Atkinson and Shiffrin, since only information to which we consciously attend is actually encoded.
D. It is possible for information to make it into our long-term memory without going through the first two stages of the model.
Mischa bought a new gate to install at the top of his stairs so that his young son couldn’t have an accident. He took the gate out of the box and studied the instructions for several minutes, before deciding that he knew all he needed to know. With tools in hand, Mischa then proceeded to get horribly lost during the installation of the gate. The difference between knowing how to install the gate and actually being able to do the installation is an example of the __________ distinction.
Mort is going to the supermarket to pick up seven items – a toilet brush, shampoo, apples, toothpicks, baby diapers, a birthday card, and pasta. He has them written down in this order on his shopping list, but he gets to the store and finds that he’s left the list at home. He finds the first few things and the last few things on his list, but for all of his effort he cannot remember that he needed toothpicks. This tendency to forget things that came in the middle of a list of items is called the __________ effect.
C. serial position
When you study for an exam, knowing that the outcome could make or break your semester grade, you are using __________ encoding.